Aditya L1 Mission: Why does India want to study ‘Corona’ and its heating system, what is its connection with the Sun?


New Delhi : Aditya is the real god of the earth. That’s why we call him Sun God. This is the only God whom we can see in front of us with our own eyes. We also call Aditya as Surya, Dinkar, Diwakar, Bhanu, Bhaskar, Aak, Aditya, Dinesh, Mitra, Martand, Mandar, Patang, Vihangam, Ravi, Prabhakar, Arun, Anshumali and Suraj. It is the Sun God, by whom not only the rotation speed of our earth is maintained, but the life of all the living beings of our earth depends on the rays of this Sun God. Apart from this, Earth’s gravitational force and electricity system, renewable renewable energy etc. are also obtained from the Sun only.

Solar mission countdown begins

Very recently, we i.e. India have successfully landed Lander Pragyan with Rover Vikram on the surface of South Pole of our Chanda Mama. Let us tell you that not only the lander Pragyan and the rover Vikram are playing in the lap of their uncle Chanda, but the rover of Chandrayaan 2 is also showing the way to both of them. After achieving success in stepping on the moon’s land, India has now made a plan to measure the heat of the sun. Today Aditya is going to launch L-1 under his solar mission. The countdown for the first solar mission of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has begun. Aditya L-1 is going to be launched through its PSLV-C57.

How do massive bodies survive in the solar system?

Before the launch of Aditya L-1, a team of ISRO scientists reached Tirupati and offered prayers for the success of the solar mission. Aditya L-1 is India’s first observatory series solar mission to study the Sun. The Sun is the largest body and the second largest star in our solar system. The gravity of the sun keeps all the bodies of the solar system at their fixed place. Aditya L-1 will carry a total of seven payloads, out of which 4 payloads will monitor the Sun and the remaining three payloads will carry out in-situ studies of particles and fields on L1. These seven payloads will study the photosphere and chromosphere along with the corona, the outermost layer of the Sun.

What is the purpose of Aditya L-1?

Now if we talk about the objectives of Aditya L-1, then as we have already told you that India’s first Suryaan Aditya L-1 will study the photosphere and chromosphere along with the corona, the outermost layer of the Sun. Aditya L-1, after being established in the halo orbit near the Lagrangian point between Sun-Earth, will keep an eye on the boundaries of the Sun from here and will transmit its information to us. The biggest thing is that Aditya L-1 will study the boundaries of the Sun by being established in the halo orbit near the Langeje, there will be no effect of any kind of planets, eclipses and meteorites.

What is the main scientific objective of Aditya-L1 mission

According to the website of the Indian Space Research Organisation, through the Aditya L-1 mission, ISRO scientists will study the solar upper atmospheric (chromosphere and corona) dynamics. In addition, he will study chromospheric and coronal heating and the physics of partially ionized plasma, coronal mass ejections and the initiation of flares. Not only this, through this mission, scientists will observe the in-situ particle and plasma environment providing data for the study of particle dynamics from the Sun. The physics of the solar corona and its heating mechanism will be studied. The diagnosis, temperature, velocity and density of coronal and coronal loop plasma, evolution, dynamics and origin of CMEs will also be studied. On behalf of ISRO, it has been said that through this mission, the sequence of processes occurring on the chromosphere, base and extended corona will be identified, which ultimately lead to the events of the solar explosion. The magnetic field topology and magnetic field in the solar corona will be measured. The origin, composition and dynamics of the solar wind will be known for space weather.

How and whom will Aditya L-1 study

Aditya L-1 will study the magnetic field and topology of the corona, the outer layer of the Sun, by staying in the halo orbit of the Lagrangian point between the Sun and the Earth. Along with this, he will also try to gather information about the structure and origin of the Sun. Its seven payloads will study the photosphere and chromosphere along with the corona, the outermost layer of the Sun. Along with this, through Aditya L-1, we will also try to get information about other galaxies. The data collected for this mission can prove to be useful for our other missions in future.

What will Aditya L-1 carry with it

Now that we have come to know this much, it is also very important to know that the Aditya L-1 which is being launched by ISRO today to establish it in the Halo Orbit for the Solar Mission, is carrying Aditya Solar with it. Wind will carry Particle Experiment, Plasma Analyzer Package for Aditya, Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer, High Energy L-1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer and Magnetometer.

Scientific instruments accompanying Aditya L-1

  • Solar Coronal Imager (SCI): The instrument will photograph the Sun’s corona in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light.

  • Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SXS): This instrument will measure the X-ray spectrum of the Sun.

  • Solar Wind Plasma Analyzer (SWAP): This instrument will measure the plasma of the solar wind.

  • Magnetometer (MAG) : This instrument will measure the magnetic field of the Sun.

  • Solar Particle Monitor (SPM): This instrument will measure solar energy particles.

  • In-situ Solar Spectrometer (ISS): The instrument will measure the plasma and energetic particles of the solar wind in-situ.

Sun-Earth Lagrangian point is 1.5 million km away from Earth

The Aditya-L1 spacecraft is designed for remote observation of the Sun’s orbit and to study the solar wind at L1 (Sun-Earth Lagrangian point), which is about 1.5 million kilometers from Earth.

Sun-Earth will take 125 days to reach Lagrangian point

According to Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) chief S Somnath, ISRO has started preparing for the launch of Aditya L-1. Rockets and satellites are ready for this. ISRO scientists have completed the rehearsal for the launch. Aditya L-1 will take 125 days to reach the designated Sun-Earth Lagrangian point.

Which countries have sent Surya Mission?

Along with this, let us also tell you that before India, about 22 missions have been sent to the Sun from different countries of the whole world. The countries which have sent their missions to the Sun include America, Germany, European Space Agency etc. NASA has sent the maximum number of solar missions to study the Sun. NASA alone has sent a total of 14 Sun missions so far, while the European Space Agency also sent a Sun mission in 1994 in collaboration with NASA.

Why is it necessary to study solar earthquakes?

Ahead of the departure of India’s ‘Aditya-L1’ Sun mission, a top scientist has said that monitoring the Sun on a 24-hour basis is necessary to study solar earthquakes affecting Earth’s geomagnetic fields. The ‘Aditya-L1’ mission to study the Sun will be launched from Sriharikota Space Center at 11.50 am on Saturday. Regarding the need to study the Sun, Professor and Scientist-in-Charge of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) Dr. R. Ramesh said that just as earthquakes occur on Earth, solar earthquakes also occur on the surface of the Sun, which are known as ‘coronal mass ejections’. ‘ (CME) is called. He said that in this process millions of tons of solar material gets scattered in the interplanetary space. He said that the speed of these CMEs is about 3,000 km per second. Some CMEs can also come towards the Earth. The fastest CME can reach near the Earth in about 15 hours.

Why Aditya L-1 is different from other missions

Why is this mission different from other such missions? To this Dr R Ramesh said that though ESA (European Space Agency) and NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) have launched similar missions in the past, the ‘Aditya L-1’ mission will be unique in two main aspects, Because we will be able to observe the orbit of the Sun from the place from where it starts. In addition, we will also be able to observe changes in the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere, which are the cause of ‘coronal mass ejections’ or solar earthquakes.

CMEs destroy satellites

Dr R Ramesh said that sometimes these ‘Coronal Mass Ejections’ (CMEs) destroy satellites and all electronic equipment on satellites can be damaged due to the particle flow from the CME. These CMEs reach the Earth. For example, in 1989, the Quebec region in Canada was without power for approximately 72 hours when there was a massive movement of the solar atmosphere. At the same time, in 2017, due to CME, Zurich airport of Switzerland was affected for about 14 to 15 hours.

CMEs destroy the power system

Dr. Ramesh said that once CMEs reach the Earth, which is like a big magnet with north and south poles, they can travel along magnetic field lines and then they interact with Earth’s geomagnetic field. can change. He said that once the geomagnetic field is affected, it can affect high voltage transformers, leading to complete destruction of the power system. Therefore, it is very important to establish observation stations for continuous monitoring of the Sun, which is possible from the Lagrangian (L1) point. India is launching ‘Aditya-L1’ to establish its satellite at ‘Lagrangian-1’ point.

Why is it necessary to monitor the sun round the clock

According to Dr. Ramesh, the officials of the IIA, an organization with a long tradition of 125 years in observing the Sun, felt that they should monitor the Sun on a 24-hour basis, so that whatever changes are happening (on the Sun), He can be seen very well. Although the Sun can be observed with a ground-based telescope, it has two major limitations. One limitation is that only eight or nine hours a day are available for observing the Sun, as such observations can only be made during the day and not at night.

Monitoring the Sun is a big challenge

The scientist said that the second challenge while monitoring the Sun from Earth is that the light coming from the Sun gets scattered due to dust particles in the atmosphere, which can blur the picture. R Ramesh said that to avoid these shortcomings in solar observation, the IIA felt the need to have a telescope in space for 24-hour uninterrupted observation of the Sun.

Who discovered ‘Lagrangian’ points

Dr. R. Ramesh said that there are five vantage points from where the sun can be observed. These are called ‘Lagrangian’ points, named after the Italian astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange. He discovered them. The scientist said that the gravitational force between the Sun and the Earth is completely balanced at the Lagrange points. Out of all these five points, there is a point called ‘L1’ to have an uninterrupted view of the Sun. This point is located between the Sun and the Earth at a distance of 1.5 million kilometers from the Earth. The ‘Aditya L1’ space mission will take more than 100 days to reach the ‘Lagrangian-1’ point.

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