Growing population is the root cause of many problems.


At the time of India’s independence, the population of the country was 36 crores, which has increased to 143 crores. In 2019, a United Nations report said that by 2024, the population of India and China would be equal and in 2027, India would overtake China to become the world’s most populous country, but India has become the world’s most populous country this year. Is. ‘World Population Day’ is celebrated every year on 11th July to raise global awareness on population related problems. In the context of India, due to the rapidly increasing population, we are lagging behind in providing basic needs like education and health to all. Due to the increasing population, the problem of unemployment in the country has become acute. Although in the past decades, programs were run to generate new employment through various schemes, but due to the increasing population, all these programs proved to be ‘cumin in camel’s mouth’. Due to the increasing population, the imbalance between population and resources is increasing in the country. The reality is that the speed at which the country’s population increased in the past decades, no government could have been able to make arrangements for raising the necessary resources for the people.

Today, a large population of the country is forced to live a low standard of living. About 40 percent of the population in the country has been living in poverty since independence. Many people who are living in poverty think that the more children they have, the more earning hands they will have, but this thinking is beyond reality. In the era of ever-increasing inflation, the needs and prices of various products increase much more than the income increases due to the increase in the earning hands due to the increase in the family size, which becomes beyond the ability to meet. Therefore, it is most important for the success of population control programs that special attention should be paid to making such people living in extreme poverty aware about the importance of family planning programs, because unless these people participate in this program, Till then it is not possible to achieve the goal.

To counter the population growth in the country, there has been a demand for making some stringent laws for a long time, but in this direction, some state governments are taking steps like disqualifying families with more than two children from government jobs and candidature in local body elections. Considering the kind of measures, they cannot be considered rational from any point of view. Although population growth is a serious challenge at present, but such measures are not considered rational even from the constitutional point of view. In China, only one child was allowed to be born before 1980, for violating which the couple was not only deprived of government schemes but also punished, but this policy was not successful there. That is why the Chinese government changed this policy in 2016 to allow two children and later had to allow three children. It is also important to understand the reasons why couples were allowed to have three children in a major change in policies by China’s authoritarian government. In fact, there is a continuous decline in the general fertility rate of people there and according to experts, the same situation is going to happen in India as well.

For population stability and a stable number of working youth, the normal female fertility rate should be 2.1, and this rate is steadily declining in China. In China, this rate was 5.8 in 1970, which decreased to 1.6 in 2015 and only 1.3 in 2020, while the elderly population continued to grow. According to the National Bureau of Statistics, due to increase in the number of older people in the population, the pressure regarding balanced development and population will increase in the coming times. In the census held in 1982, China’s population recorded the highest increase of 2.1 percent, but after that a steady decline in population was recorded, for which the decades-old ‘one child policy’ adopted by the communist government there is believed to be responsible. Is. In the last one decade, the population of China has increased by about seven crores, but due to the increase in the number of elderly people, a different problem has started arising for China. In fact, China is apprehensive that its population will decline in the next ten years, due to which its consumption will also decrease due to reduction in the number of workers. According to the NBS data, the demographic crisis that China was facing was expected to deepen further, forcing China to change its population policy.

As far as India is concerned, the normal fertility rate of women was 3.4 in 1994, which has come down to 2.2 in 2015 i.e. close to normal. According to the National Family Health Survey, India’s population will begin to decline as it grows by 2050, and by 2100, the normal fertility rate will be only 1.3. This means that most families will then have only one child and India will stand in the same position as China after the One Child Policy and had to make major changes in its population policy twice in the last seven years. That’s why efforts to control population through laws like Two Child Policy are not considered practical, but for this it is most important to create awareness among people instead of intimidating laws. Without strict laws, the population growth rate has come down in such states of the country, where the literacy rate is high. According to the National Family Health Survey, the fertility rate of poor women in India is about 3.2, while this rate has been found to be only 1.5 in affluent women. Similarly, illiterate women have an average of 3.1 children while educated women have an average of 1.7. It clearly means that population explosion is directly related to social and educational conditions. Due to lack of education, the large population of the country could not be made aware about the benefits of small family.

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